Company accounting policies
A. Basis of preparation of individual financial statements under UK GAAP
These individual financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with applicable UK accounting and financial reporting standards and the Companies Act 2006.
These individual financial statements of the Company have been prepared on an historical cost basis, except for the revaluation of financial instruments.
These individual financial statements are presented in pounds sterling, which is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates.
The Company has not presented its own profit and loss account as permitted by section 408 of the Companies Act 2006. The Company has taken the exemption from preparing a cash flow statement under the terms of FRS 1 (revised 1996) ‘Cash flow statements’.
In accordance with exemptions under FRS 8 ‘Related party disclosures’, the Company has not disclosed transactions with related parties, as the Company’s financial statements are presented together with its consolidated financial statements. Further, in accordance with exemptions under FRS 29 ‘Financial Instruments: Disclosures’, the Company has not presented the financial instruments disclosures required by the standard, as disclosures which comply with the standard are included in the consolidated financial statements.
The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
B. Fixed asset investments
Investments held as fixed assets are stated at cost less any provisions for impairment. Investments are reviewed for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Impairments are calculated such that the carrying value of the fixed asset investment is the lower of its cost or recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is the higher of its net realisable value and its value-in-use.
Current tax for the current and prior periods is provided at the amount expected to be paid (or recovered) using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax is provided in full on timing differences which result in an obligation at the balance sheet date to pay more tax, or the right to pay less tax, at a future date, at tax rates expected to apply when the timing differences reverse based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Timing differences arise from the inclusion of items of income and expenditure in taxation computations in periods different from those in which they are included in the financial statements.
Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is regarded as more likely than not that they will be recovered. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are not discounted.
D. Foreign currencies
Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency of the Company are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At each balance sheet date, monetary assets and liabilities that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at closing exchange rates.
Gains and losses arising on retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities are included in the profit and loss account.
E. Financial instruments
Financial assets, liabilities and equity instruments are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities and is recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs, with an amount equal to the nominal amount of the shares issued included in the share capital account and the balance recorded in the share premium account.
Loans receivable are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method less any allowance for estimated impairments. A provision is established for impairments when there is objective evidence that the Company will not be able to collect all amounts due under the original terms of the loan. Interest income, together with losses when the loans are impaired are recognised using the effective interest rate method in the profit and loss account.
Current asset financial investments are recognised at fair value plus directly related incremental transaction costs and are subsequently carried at fair value on the balance sheet. Changes in the fair value of investments classified as available-for-sale are recognised directly in equity, until the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired. At this time, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in equity is included in net profit or loss for the period. Investment income on investments classified as available-for-sale is recognised in the profit and loss account as it accrues.
Borrowings, which include interest-bearing loans and overdrafts are recorded at their initial fair value which normally reflects the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs less any repayments. Subsequently, these are stated at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method.
Any difference between proceeds and the redemption value is recognised over the term of the borrowing in the profit and loss account using the effective interest rate method.
Derivative financial instruments (‘derivatives’) are recorded at fair value, and where the fair value of a derivative is positive, it is carried as a derivative asset and where negative, as a liability. Assets and liabilities on different transactions are only netted if the transactions are with the same counterparty, a legal right of set off exists and the cash flows are intended to be settled on a net basis. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are included in the profit and loss account in the period they arise.
Where derivatives are embedded in other financial instruments that are closely related to those instruments, no adjustment is made with respect to such derivative clauses. Otherwise the derivative is recorded separately at fair value on the balance sheet.
The fair values of financial instruments measured at fair value that are quoted in active markets are based on bid prices for assets held and offer prices for issued liabilities. When independent prices are not available, fair values are determined by using valuation techniques which are consistent with techniques commonly used by the relevant market. The techniques use observable market data.
F. Hedge accounting
The Company enters into derivatives and non-derivative financial instruments in order to manage its interest rate and foreign currency exposures, with a view to managing these risks associated with the Company’s underlying business activities and the financing of those activities. The principal derivatives used include interest rate swaps, forward rate agreements, currency swaps, forward foreign currency contracts and interest rate swaptions.
Hedge accounting allows derivatives to be designated as a hedge of another (non-derivative) financial instrument, to mitigate the impact of potential volatility in the profit and loss account. The Company uses two hedge accounting methods.
Firstly, changes in the carrying value of financial instruments that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows (‘cash flow hedges’) are recognised directly in equity and any ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the profit and loss account. Amounts deferred in equity in respect of cash flow hedges are subsequently recognised in the profit and loss account in the same period in which the hedged item affects net profit or loss.
Secondly, changes in the carrying value of financial instruments that are designated as hedges of the changes in the fair value of assets or liabilities (‘fair value hedges’) are recognised in the profit and loss account. An offsetting amount is recorded as an adjustment to the carrying value of hedged items, with a corresponding entry in the profit and loss account, to the extent that the change is attributable to the risk being hedged and that the fair value hedge is effective.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the profit and loss account as they arise.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time, any cumulative gains or losses relating to cash flow hedges recognised in equity are initially retained in equity and subsequently recognised in the profit and loss account in the same periods in which the previously hedged item affects net profit or loss. For fair value hedges the cumulative adjustment recorded to its carrying value at the date hedge accounting is discontinued is amortised to the profit and loss account using the effective interest rate method.
If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in equity is transferred to the profit and loss account immediately.
G. Parent Company guarantees
The Company has guaranteed the repayment of the principal and any associated premium and interest on specific loans due from certain subsidiary undertakings to third parties. In the event of default or non performance by the subsidiary, the Company recognises such guarantees as insurance contracts, at fair value with a corresponding increase in the carrying value of the investment.
H. Share-based payments
The Company issues equity-settled, share-based payments to certain employees of subsidiary undertakings, detailed in the Directors’ Report, the Directors’ Remuneration Report and in note 35 to the consolidated financial statements.
Equity-settled, share-based payments are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The Company has no employees. Equity-settled, share-based payments that are made available to employees of the Company’s subsidiaries are treated as increases in equity over the vesting period of the award, with a corresponding increase in the Company’s investments in subsidiaries, based on an estimate of the number of shares that will eventually vest. Where payments are subsequently received from subsidiaries, these are accounted for as a return of a capital contribution and credited against the Company’s investments in subsidiaries.
Interim dividends are recognised when they are paid to the Company’s shareholders. Final dividends are recognised when they are approved by shareholders.